Zcash (ZEC) has become popular with crypto investors because of its optional anonymity feature. It gives its users a level of privacy that is currently not attainable with the pioneer blockchain and cryptocurrency technologies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. And its biggest selling point is that you have the option of turning this privacy on or off.
But, what is Zcash? How and where do you buy Zcash in 2023? and what do you do with them after acquiring them?
This review will answer all these questions. It will also introduce you to the best Zcash exchanges, the best broker to buy Zcash at the moment and provide you with a simple step-by-step guide on how to buy Zcash altcoins instantly on the platforms. We will tell you of the different ways in which you can invest in ZEC tokens.
Identify a highly reputable crypto trading platform that supports Zcash trading and create a user account with them (eToro comes highly recommended). In most cases, the account creation process involves providing the trading platform with personal information and furnishing them with a copy of your government-issued identification document. We will be telling you what to look for when searching for the best place to buy Zcash later in this article.
Deposit funds in fiat currency and start trading Zcash (ZEC). Depending on your chosen exchange you will be provided with multiple deposit methods. On the eToro exchange, for instance, the supported deposit and withdrawal methods include bank transfers, PayPal, e-wallets (Skrill, Neteller), credit or debit cards, SOFORT, and iDEAL.
Proceed to buy Zcash tokens on your preferred exchange or brokerage. In most instances, crypto exchanges let you buy and own the purchased Zcash tokens by giving you private keys relating to the coins. Brokerages on the other hand let you trade Zcash CFDs and other derivatives. These derivatives do not give you ownership or control of the purchased Zcash.
On the flip side, nevertheless, brokerages like eToro let you buy Zcash CFDs with leverage (borrowed funds). These can be as low as 2X or as high as 125X your trading capital. The level of leverage available to you will be largely dependent on your trading preferred brokerage and country of residence.
Zcash is a decentralized cryptocurrency and the native digital coin for the Zcash blockchain. It is a privacy and anonymity-oriented digital currency that seeks to fill the anonymity gap left by most cryptocurrencies and tokens. Note that contrary to media publications and general opinions out in the public domain, the biggest percentage of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum are not truly anonymous. Anyone with basic IT knowledge can track your Bitcoin transactions and crypto trading history.
Zcash wants to make your crypto trading experience and interactions with the crypto technology truly anonymous. But unlike such other wholly anonymous crypto technologies like Monero, Zcash gives its users the option of making their transactions transparent (and trackable like Bitcoin and Ethereum) or truly anonymous.
To achieve this level of anonymity, Zcash ensures that it doesn’t – by default – reveal any sensitive information relating to the trade. This implies any third party to the transaction cannot view the sending or receiving addresses or the amounts changing hands. Similarly, it ensures that no one can see the sending or receiving addresses’ crypto transaction history.
Zcash was introduced to the crypto community on 28th October 2016 by the for-profit organization – Electronic Coin Company (ECC), founded by Zooko Wilcox-O’Hearn – a cybersecurity analyst and cypherpunk. ZEC altcoins power this blockchain and they are minable coins with a maximum supply of 21 million coins. Today, the mining reward for every mined block is 6.25 ZEC coins and the reward is halved every four years.
In addition to the fact that Zcash and Bitcoin are both blockchain-based cryptocurrencies, they have a lot of similarities and a few differences. Did you know, for instance, that Zcash is considered an offshoot of Bitcoin seeing that it is built on Bitcoin’s open-sourced codebase? It essentially is an improved and anonymized Bitcoin technology.
Like Bitcoin, Zcash is secured by the proof of work SHA-256 hashing function. It also has its maximum coin supply capped at 21 million tokens, halves after every four years, and seeks to serve as a medium of exchange and store of value.
But there are also three fundamental differences between the two blockchain technologies.
According to Coingecko, ZEC altcoin ended its first day of trading on 29th October 2016 valued at $3191.93 ( its current all-time high). This valuation slipped to $541.53 the following day before taking a shot at the earlier high but reversing after hitting $1894.08 on 31st October 2016. Since then, Zcash’s price action has been snowballing downtrend.
A month after reaching the all-time high – on 29th November 2016, the ZEC coin had shed more than 98% of this peak price and was trading at around $68.59. It would maintain these low prices for the next few months and only break above $100 in May 2017 and proceed to hit $400 in mid-June. It couldn’t sustain this high price and quickly slipped below $150 by September.
As the entire crypto industry rallied in the last quarter of 2017, ZEC token prices took the last major shot at their all-time high price set in 2016 but missed and only reached $880 on 7th January 2018. As the rally waned, so did investor confidence in Zcash, which saw its price crumble and fall below $100 in November 2018.
Here are some of the factors that have the greatest influence on which price direction Zcash tokens take.
Like most cryptocurrencies, Zcash has been largely adopted as a speculative investment product. Here are the four most common ways of investing in Zcash.
HOLDING” is the crypto term for buying a cryptocurrency through an exchange and holding onto it for the longest time possible. The strategy relies on the fact that with time your Zcash will gain and value. In this case, the holding depends on the owners, with some going into years without moving crypto from wallets.
If you opt to not “HODL,” becoming a trader is also a strategy to invest in Zcash and make quick profits from the altcoin’s volatile price movements. Primarily, trading will have you profiting off and maximize gains even on an hourly basis.
When day trading Zcash, you may also choose to trade the ZEC tokens or their derivatives, especially the CFDs and futures contracts, available on different Chainlink brokerages.
If you are not keen on day trading cryptocurrencies, you may consider staking your Zcash tokens and in a decentralized finance protocol and earn rewards. Most staking protocols let you lend your ZEC coins to other traders and investors in a highly secure environment and pay you back the principal plus interest.
How do you pay for the Zcash on different brokerages and exchanges? Whether you are buying ZEC coins or trading Zcash CFDs, you need to know the payment options available to you. Here are some of the most common.
Credit and debit cards are popular and most convenient ways of depositing fiat currency on eToro. On the platform, you can use your cards to make instantaneous deposits (minimum $200) and withdrawals (minimum $30) that come with a $5 fee. An extra fee of 2% is also charged on your deposits/withdrawals if you want to fund or withdraw cash in any other currency, other than the USD.
eToro accommodates the PayPal service, with the crypto broker allowing fast linking between your crypto account and the online wallet. For PayPal deposits, eToro imposes a minimum limit of $200, with a maximum limit set at $10,000 in each transaction. The withdrawal minimum, on the other hand, is $30 with a $5 processing fee.
The popularity of eWallets has eToro making it possible to load your account from anywhere using platforms like Sofort, Skrill, and Neteller. Deposits into eToro using eWallets (Skrill, Neteller) are free but you will have to use USD as the base currency. In addition, eToro requires a minimum eWallet deposit of $200 ($50 for USA clients) and a minimum withdrawal of $30 plus a $5 fee.
If you prefer bank wire transfer, eToro has you set up an accommodative payment method on the platform for your Zcash purchase. Each bank deposit into eToro is free, although a minimum of $500 is necessary for such transactions. The withdrawal minimum is $30 and it carries a $5 processing fee. Note, however, that bank wire transfers to crypto exchanges and brokerages typically take between 3 to 8 business days.
Different trading platforms let you buy Zcash anonymously (without ID verification). On eToro, for instance, you can buy and sell Zcash coins of up to $2250 without verifying your identity. The service is, however, only available to residents of a few countries and territories.
Buying Zcash UK or any other part of the world does not have to be complicated. As more and more trading platforms started offering crypto-trading services, they found ways of eliminating bottlenecks to the process and making it as straightforward as possible. Today, here are the three things you need to buy Zcash.
We have already mentioned that there is no standard minimum amount required to buy Zcash Australia or any other part of the world. The fact that ZEC coins are highly divisible and that they allow for fractional coin ownership ensures that you can buy Zcash with as little as possible. Further, access to leverage when trading Zcash derivatives like CFDs and Futures contracts also play a key role in determining how much you need to start buying Zcash.
Nevertheless, the minimum you can invest in Zcash will ultimately be determined by your choice of ZEC trading platform. On eToro, for instance, the minimum you can invest in Zcash trade is $25.
Other factors that play a key role in influencing how much you invest in Zcash include your disposable income, risk tolerance, and crypto trading experience.
You now understand how to buy Zcash using different payment methods, the pros and cons of investing in ZEC coins, and how much you need to buy Zcash globally. But where can you buy and trade Zcash today? We look at the four most common places to buy ZEC coins today.
As the name suggests, crypto exchanges provide you with an online platform, which allows you to buy and sell Zcash tokens. You should also be aware that exchanges only allow trading cryptocurrencies for fiat currencies or other tokens (pairing), unlike a crypto broker. Such platforms are suitable for advanced traders looking to gain from Zcash (ZEC) price volatility.
Simply put, a crypto broker allows Zcash (ZEC) traders to deposit fiat(or crypto) and use the various trading products on offers. The main difference from exchanges comes from brokers allowing trading without pairs and based on real-time market prices. Therefore, a brokerage is suitable for traders in search of trading security and higher liquidity.
Different peer-to-peer trading platforms have cropped up and eliminated the many bureaucracies presented by crypto exchanges and brokers. You, for instance, can link up with a Zcash (ZEC) token seller directly, buy the coins and get ownership via private keys. However, such services already exist on changes to make the process more legitimate between crypto customers.
You can also buy Zcash at crypto ATMs in big cities across the world. The number of these ZEC coin ATMs is however limited and they aren’t as readily available as crypto ATMs that process the more popular cryptocurrencies like Bitcoins or Ripple
Zcash also joins the growing list of cryptocurrencies that you can buy at a crypt ATM. But we have mentioned hereinabove that, unlike Bitcoin whose ATMs are available in virtually all the major cities in the world, there are only a handful of Zcash ATMs strewn in different cities. Here is the step-by-step process of buying Zcash at an ATM near you.
1. Search for cryptocurrency ATMs near you with two-way options that allow buying and selling of Zcash and other coins.
2. After locating the ATM, initiate the buying process by choosing “Buy Zcash” under the altcoins tab. Depending on the machine, ID verification may be necessary for Zcash or any other purchase.
3. Provide a Zcash wallet where the ZEC coins will be sent.
4. Key in the fiat money equivalent of the Zcash you need. Insert the paper money into the ATM
5. Verify the transaction by confirming the amount and tap on “BUY” or “FINISH.”
Here are some of the factors that you need to consider when deciding on the best cryptocurrency trading platform to buy Zcash.
There is everything you need about investing in Zcash today. Let us now look at the best places to buy Zcash coins in 2023 and the step-by-step process of buying these altcoins here.
The eToro platform is one of the most popular social trading platforms since its inception back in 2007. At the start, the online trading platform provided traditional investment products with options such as F.X. and share trading, all available as standard features. Now, eToro stands out for being one of the few popular crypto brokers providing both actual ZEC purchases plus trading in ZEC CFDs.
For new eToro users, the onboarding process is relatively easy enough to have you owning your Zcash in no time. The first step would need identity verification depending on your location and the amount you are to spend.
On the payment methods, eToro combines the best available options for all your deposit and withdrawing situations. For instance, the platform integrates payment options such as credit card or debit card, Paypal, bank transfers, and eWallets like Skrill, Neteller, and Sofort.
While the payment channels offer convenience, the transactions bring on the issues of fees on eToro. There also exists a minimum deposit amount with eToro requiring a first-time deposit of $200 ($50 for USA citizens) and a minimum deposit of $50 from thereon.
Other features include a demo account for practice and a minimum withdrawal amount for each crypto with transaction fees incurred in the process.
Check out our comprehensive eToro guide 2023 to learn more.
1. Visit The official eToro website and click on the “Join Now” button on the top-right of the front page.
2. Fill in the form and verify your details
3. After approval, log into your verified eToro trade account and head over to your profile on the left for the Discover menu. Click on the “Trade Markets” option, then pick Zcash from the “Crypto” list.
4. Initiate a ZEC trade by customizing the type, amount, and units before confirming with the “Open Trade” button.
5. If the funds are insufficient, you may need to deposit using either payment method, including bank transfers, PayPal, credit, and debit cards. Keep note that your payment details need to match your eToro account details.
Note: Once you complete the purchase of the Zcash, your crypto will be deposited in your eToro wallet account. You can move the ZEC to third-party wallets after time.
Capital.com trading platform has become the go-to CFD trading platform and has been catering to traders’ needs since 2016. In particular, this execution-only platform focuses on providing advanced and conventional trading products to cover from shares, commodities to even cryptocurrencies.
Owning a CFD crypto account will have you start with a mandatory check of your identity verification to initiate account creation. This can be done through the official Capital.com website or the smartphone app for Android and iOS devices.
After you can fund your account using the provided payment methods ranging from wire transfers, credit card or debit card, and plenty of eWallet options. First-time users will require to transact a minimum $20 deposit with bank transfers requiring you to start with $250 as a minimum. Transfers within the account are free, but you will have to incur the processing fee from your bank or financial institution.
Currently, Capital.com is regulated by CySEC and FCA with KYC requirements for each client with an account.
Our detailed Capital.com review 2023 has everything you need to know about the broker. Check it out to get started.
1. Go to Capital.com and open an account through the “Trade Now” icon. Fill in your details and proceed to validate your identity information.
2. Confirm verification and log in to your portfolio dashboard. Tap the “Deposit” option on the left menu tab and fund your account.
3. Capital.com will provide you with a payment prompt having the option of different payment channels to fund your account. Be sure your preferred deposit method matches details from your trader account.
4. Once your account is funded, head to your dashboard search bar and look for supported Zcash CFD pairs.
5. Initiate your trade by customizing the Zash amount, leverage necessary, currency and trade type plus levels.
6. Confirm your trades finer details such as the fees, the spreads, and trade positions before executing.
The Coinbase trading exchange is a cryptocurrency exchange with a reputable history dating back to its launch in 2012. The pioneering cryptocurrency platform is the first crypto exchange to go public, allowing global investment.
For users, Coinbase account creation is a process geared towards beginners in search of a less complex trading platform. You can, however, opt to pick using Coinbase PRO, which is a complicated version for professional and institutional traders. In both sites, identity verification remains mandatory, with no option of purchasing your Zcash anonymously. Additionally, the central exchange plus Coinbase Pro supports similar payment options with channels available consisting of eWallets(Skrill and Neteller), PayPal, bank wire transfers, credit and debit cards.
The trade conditions are also present on the amount you can deposit and trade when starting with Zcash trading. Inside, Coinbase requires a minimum deposit of $50, with the trade amount needed at $2.
Check our full Coinbase review 2023 to learn more.
1. Head over to Coinbase’s official website and tap the “Get Started” option at the top right corner of the front page.
2. Complete the user registration form and verify your identity.
3. Once verified, log in and click on the “Portfolio” tab on the left and tap the “Deposit Funds” option to fund your account. With the different payment methods available(cards, bank transfer, plus eWallets), you can pick one and follow the guides on linking your Coinbase account and making the deposit to your trader account.
4. With the successful deposit, click the “BUY/SELL” option on the top tab and select Zcash for a review of your trade.
5. Start the trade by clicking the “Buy/Sell Instantly” option and select the payment option plus the amount you wish to buy.
6. Click on the “Buy Zcash Instantly” to close the trade.
Note: You will receive your Zcash in your Coinbase exchange wallet instantly. There is the option to move them later on to the free Coinbase wallet app, other crypto platforms, or third-party wallets.
The Binance trading platform is a prime example of exponential cryptocurrency growth, with the exchange surpassing expectations despite having been founded in 2017. Binance ranks as one of the largest crypto exchanges with over 3000+ digital currencies (250+ cryptocurrencies) across 200+ countries and a market capitalization of over $1.3 billion.
On the exchange scene, Binance offers one of the lowest fees for your Zcash trading or staking. The current charges stand at 0.02% to 0.10% as purchase and trade fees, respectively, with card purchases attracting 3% to 4.5% regardless of the type. If you opt for a SEPA transfer, Binance gives you free transactions, although a U.S. wire transfer comes in costly at $15 per transfer.
There is no actual minimum deposit with a verified account, largely depending on the third-party deposit option you pick. Current policy only allows you to make crypto deposits in Binance or buy directly a minimum amount of $15 plus a minimum trade amount of $1.
Binance deposits your Zcash amount to your inbuilt platform wallet with each purchase, but you can shift to other third-party wallets later. Remember Binance caps the maximum ZEC you can buy each month either anonymously or with a verified account.
For more information, check out our comprehensive Binance guide 2023.
1. On the official Binance site, tap the “Register” button on the top button. There is also another “Register Now” option to initiate your Binance account creation. Eligible U.S. residents will have to use Binance.us for their registration.
2. Fill in the “Create Free Account” form with your registration details. You can use email or a mobile phone number for better authentication.
3. After verifying, log in to your Binance account, head over to the user dashboard, and tap the “Buy Crypto” tab, and choose the “Buy with card” option.
4. You will be directed to the trades age that asks the amount of Zcash you wish to buy and your card details.
Note: The purchased Zcash will be delivered to your Binance trader account. You can then transfer them to other crypto exchanges or third-party crypto wallets.
As a leading U.S-based exchange, there is a lot going on with Kraken in regards to the features, listings, and options available for more than 180+ countries plus 48 states using the exchange. For instance, a minimum initial deposit on Kraken will vary depending on the fiat currency you will use. Currently, Kraken supports seven fiat currencies (USD, EUR, AUD, JPY, CAD, GBP, and CHF) for use on the platform. Withdrawals and transactions for the fiat currencies can be made through SEPA, SWIFT, domestic plus bank wire transactions, which take one to five days.
You also get a much faster deposit system with the use of credit card or debit card, plus eWallets such as PayPal, Neteller, and Skrill. Kraken supports deposits from these wallets with a free deposit although a minimum trade amount necessary will be $10. Trading fees are also applicable with any instant buy, sell or conversion charged at a 0.9% fee for stablecoins and a 1.5% fee for other crypto pairs.
On financing, opting for depositing in the most accepted crypto on Kraken gets you a free pass with no charges for a minimum deposit of $10. However, bank deposits and wire transfers for your Zcash will cost you with Kraken charging 0.5% fee on each online banking processing and 3.75% fee+ 0.25 Euros for the payment card processing.
There is the option of Kraken PRO which is an advanced version offering more features and better fee considerations. For the basic Kraken, the setup allows for three account levels-Starter, Intermediate, and Pro- based on verification of the users.
1. Visit the official Kraken website and create your Zcash account through the “Create Account” button.
2. Confirm your details and log in to verify your account. Choose an account level you want and proceed to submit the required documents by Kraken. Each account level unlocks different fees and limits for the user.
3. Deposit funds into your verified Kraken account using the “Funding” tab to purchase your desired Zcash through the fiat currencies or major cryptos available.
4. With your fiat deposit, click on the “Trade’ tab to place a new purchase order for your cryptocurrency. The starter level only allows for BTC buying, so users will have to upgrade for more cryptos like Zcash. Confirm your order and click “Buy” to finalize the trade.
In addition to buying Zcash crypto coins on exchanges and brokerages across the world, here are three more ways of acquiring Zcash tokens today.
In the end, chances are you could earn some Zcash as gifts or tips from your crypto peers, family, or work acquaintances. If you have a business or company, you also could accept Zcash bonuses, rewards, or donations for your goods or services on offer. Given Zcash’s (ZEC) low price, you could end up earning a substantial amount as tips or rewards.
Crypto faucets have also turned into one of the easiest ways of earning free digital tokens. Today, for instance, you can earn through completing surveys, playing video games, installing apps, or viewing video advertisements. With multiple access to Zcash faucets, you can accumulate an impressive ZEC portfolio.
We have already mentioned that Zcash borrows heavily from Bitcoin’s open-sourced code. And just like you could mine BTC online, you can also mine Zcash, which essentially involves using your computer to verify transactions on the Zcash blockchain network, Currently, for every block created, the individual or pool of miners involved are awarded 6.5 ZRC coins. This figure halves every four years and the next halving is expected to take place around August 2023.
With an understanding of how to get ZEC coins, you now need to learn the different ways in which you could put them to use. Let’s explore the different ways you can spend your ZEC coins in real life.
Essentially, “Holding” your ZEC will not have you put the coins into use but instead store them with the hope of a value increase. Note, with a HODL; you are only working with the confidence that ZEC prices will eventually shoot up. However, there is no guarantee that crypto will always go up. The prices could still tank, leaving you in losses.
Trading would be a great move for anyone looking to earn profits from their Zcash tokens. Varying trading strategies and platforms are also available to match your preference and have you take advantage of price volatility.
By staking your Zcash tokens in a decentralized finance protocol, you are essentially giving the protocol the power to lend these coins and pay interest. Staking in the digitized version of banks in the blockchain world, which involves depositing your crypto assets in a DeFi protocol and drawing interest when they are lent to other ZEC traders and investors.
You can also take advantage of retailers and traders accepting or processing ZEC payments through their sites. These merchants working under the Zcash marketplace can vary from offering gift cards, coupons to even booking hotels using ZEC.
Plenty of organizations, companies, and even individuals now incorporate crypto tipping as donations through the sites. Zcash’s accessibility on multiple exchanges and trading platforms makes it an excellent crypto tip by being inexpensive and easy to transact.
Reddit continues to be a significant influencer in the crypto sphere by dictating hot topics and reviewing each digital currency available. Unlike its famous crypto counterpart, Zcash does not attract a lot of attention on Reddit.
However, the Zcash community discusses hot topics in regards to new developments surrounding ZEC and its blockchain. The most recent includes talks on the adoption of Zcash blockchain in electronic voting and gaming as part of the increasing Zcash use. Others focus on the growth of the Zcash community including social participation in ZEC.
Like on Reddit, there is insignificant chatter about Zcash on Quora. But from time to time someone will ask questions or give an opinion about the cryptocurrency.
Currently, some of the most popular topics about the Zcash coin here are questions about its future profitability, queries on whether and when it will recover, discussions about jurisdictions in which Zcash is banned or is likely to get banned, and debates on its sustainability both as a cryptocurrency technology and as a speculative investment product.
Zcash has had a rough past, dropping from an industry favorite to losing as much as 97% of its all-time high value and slipping to position 62 on the ranking of the largest cryptocurrencies. But some crypto analysts are still confident that it will rise again and probably break above the current all-time high in the future.
If ZEC is an asset that you would like to invest in today, we have come up with this highly elaborate guide that helps you get a better understanding of the coin and where to buy it in 2023. It tells you how to pay for the coin and breaks the investment process into a step-by-step guide. Go through it again, find the exchange or brokerage that best matches your investing needs, register an account there and proceed to buy your first Zcash coin.
It depends on what you’re looking for in an investment. If you’re looking for something that will appreciate in value over time, then Zcash may not be the best choice. However, if you’re looking for a cryptocurrency with strong privacy features, then Zcash could be a good investment.
Zcash is a coin. It’s based on the Zerocoin protocol, which is a form of cryptography that allows for anonymous transactions. Zcash was the first to implement this protocol, and it was released in 2016. Other coins that use this protocol include PIVX, BitShares, and Verge.
Nobody knows for sure, but it’s likely to be worth quite a bit! Zcash is a new cryptocurrency that uses advanced cryptography to ensure privacy and security. It’s quickly gaining popularity, and many experts believe it has great potential.
It’s impossible to say for sure, but it looks like ZEC could be a good investment choice for 2022. That’s because Zcash is a relatively new cryptocurrency that already has a solid user base and a promising future. Furthermore, the team behind Zcash is actively working on improvements and upgrades, which means that the coin is only likely to get more popular over time. So if you’re looking for a cryptocurrency investment with good potential, ZEC may be worth considering!
Well, that depends on who you ask. Some people would say that any cryptocurrency is inherently unsafe, because of the volatile nature of the market. Others would argue that Zcash is safer than most, because it uses zk-SNARKS to keep transactions private. So it really depends on your perspective.
Zcash is not a fork of Bitcoin, but it does share some similarities. Both currencies are based on blockchain technology and use a proof-of-work algorithm to verify transactions. However, Zcash uses a different hashing algorithm than Bitcoin, which makes it incompatible with the Bitcoin network.
Bitcoin and Zcash are both digital currencies, but they differ in several key ways. Bitcoin is a decentralized currency, while Zcash is a centralized one. With Bitcoin, transactions are verified by the network of users, while with Zcash, they are verified by a team of developers. Bitcoin is also faster and cheaper to use than Zcash. Finally, Zcash offers more privacy than Bitcoin, as it encrypts all transaction data.
Yes! Zcash is one of the most profitable cryptocurrencies to mine, especially if you have access to cheap electricity. Even if you don’t have access to cheap electricity, though, you can still make a healthy profit mining Zcash with just a regular home computer.
No, Zcash is not on Ethereum. Zcash is a separate cryptocurrency that uses a different mining algorithm and has a different set of features than Ethereum. However, there are several projects underway to create tokens that are based on the Ethereum network and that use the ERC20 standard for smart contracts, so it is possible that Zcash could be added to one of these projects in the future.